Views:0 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-05-22 Origin:Site
Piezoelectric ceramic is a functional pzt ceramic material which can transform mechanical energy and electrical energy. The so-called piezoelectric effect refers to the positive piezoelectric effect that when some media are under mechanical pressure, even if the pressure is as small as the sound wave vibration, it will produce changes in the shape such as compression or elongation, which will cause the surface of the media to be charged. On the contrary, when an exciting electric field is applied, the medium will produce mechanical deformation, which is called reverse piezoelectric effect.
In 1880, the French Curie brothers discovered the "piezoelectric effect". In 1942, the first piezoelectric ceramic material, barium titanate, was made in the United States, the former Soviet Union and Japan. In 1947, barium titanate pickup, the first piezoelectric ceramic device was born. In the early 1950s, another piezoelectric ceramic material, lead zirconate titanate, with much better performance than barium titanate, was successfully developed. Since then, the development of piezoelectric ceramics has entered a new stage. From the 1960s to the 1970s, piezoelectric ceramics have been improved and become more and more perfect. For example, lead zirconate titanate binary piezoelectric ceramics improved by many piezo elements, lead zirconate titanate based ternary and quaternary piezoelectric ceramics also emerged. These PZT materials have excellent properties, simple manufacture, low cost and wide application.
The piezoelectric igniter, mobile X-ray power supply and shell detonating device can be manufactured by using the characteristics of piezoelectric ceramics to convert external force into electric energy. Using two piezoelectric ceramic columns with a diameter of 3 mm and a height of 5 mm instead of ordinary flint, a gas electronic lighter can be made which can continuously ignite tens of thousands of times. Using piezoelectric ceramics to transform electric energy into ultrasonic vibration can be used to explore the position and shape of underwater fish, carry out non-destructive testing of metal, ultrasonic cleaning and ultrasonic medical treatment, and also can be made into various ultrasonic cutters, welding devices and soldering irons to process plastic and even metal.
Piezoelectric ceramics are sensitive to external forces, so they can even sense the disturbance of flying insects' wings to the air more than ten meters away, and convert extremely weak mechanical vibration into electrical signals. With this characteristic, piezoelectric plate crystal can be used in sonar system, meteorological detection, telemetry environmental protection, home appliances and so on. Nowadays, piezoelectric ceramics have been applied by scientists in many fields, such as national defense construction, scientific research, industrial production and people's life, and become a versatile person in the information age.
In the field of aerospace, piezoelectric gyroscope made of piezoelectric ceramics is the "rudder" of spacecraft and artificial satellite flying in space. Only by means of "rudder", spacecraft and artificial satellite can we guarantee its fixed position and course. The traditional mechanical gyroscope, with short life, poor accuracy and low sensitivity, can not meet the requirements of spacecraft and satellite system. The piezoceramic cylinder tube with small size has high sensitivity and reliability. The submarines that dive into the deep sea are equipped with sonar systems called underwater scouts. It is an indispensable equipment for underwater navigation, underwater communications, reconnaissance of enemy ships, cleaning up enemy mines, and also a powerful tool for the development of marine resources. It can detect fish groups, explore seabed topography, etc. In this sonar system, Piezoelectric ceramic underwater acoustic transducer. When the acoustic signal emitted by the underwater acoustic transducer touches a target, it will produce a reflection signal, which is received by another receiving underwater acoustic transducer, so the target is found. At present, piezoelectric ceramic is one of the best materials for making underwater acoustic transducer.
In medicine, doctors put the ultrasonic piezoelectric disk transducer on the examination part of human body, sending out ultrasonic wave after being electrified, and send it to the tissue of human body to generate echo, then receiving the echo and display it on the fluorescent screen, so that doctors can understand the internal condition of human body. In industry, there are piezoelectric ceramic elements in the geological detector, which can be used to judge the geological conditions of the strata and find out the underground mineral deposits. In addition, the ceramic transformer, the transformer in the TV set, is smaller in size and lighter in weight, with an efficiency of 60% - 80%. It can withstand the high voltage of 30000 volts, keep the voltage stable, and completely eliminate the defects of blur and deformation of the TV image. At present, most of the TV sets produced in foreign countries use piezoelectric ceramic transformers. A 15 inch picture tube with a 75mm piezoelectric ceramic transformer is enough. This makes the TV smaller and lighter.
Piezoelectric ceramics are also widely used in daily life. The gas electronic lighter made of ordinary flint is replaced by two piezoelectric ceramic columns with a diameter of 3 mm and a height of 5 mm. It can be ignited for tens of thousands of times continuously. The electronic ignition gun made by the same principle is an excellent tool for igniting gas stove. There is also a kind of children's toy made of piezoelectric ceramic components, such as a buzzer made of piezoelectric ceramic installed in the belly of a toy puppy, which will make a real and interesting sound.
With the development of high technology, piezoelectric ceramics will be used more and more widely. In addition to being used in the high-tech field, it is more about serving people in daily life and creating a better life for people.